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1 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
2 Normalized net round-trip gain                                                                                                       G                                                               s                                 p                                                                                                                         as a function of pump-signal and idler-signal phase mismatches                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               p                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                                and                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               i                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                               , respectively, for                                                                         N                           =                                                                                                                              (                                                                           π                                       /                                       2                                                                        )                                                                                             2                                                                                          . GVD is neglected, so the AM and PM eigenmodes are decoupled. (a) Gain for AM eigenmodes, (b) gain for PM eigenmodes.
3 Numerical simulations of amplification of white noise by FWM and SRS as a function of propagation length.
4 THz near-field images in the frequency domain. (a) and (b) Amplitude frequency maps at 300 GHz normalized to reference maps using 10- and 1-μm-thick 	    	      		X	      	    	  -cut LN crystals, respectively (visible image of the sample on the right hand side). (c)–(e) Expanded view for the conditions without probe filtering, with probe filtering using the 10-μm-thick sensor, and with probe filtering using the 1-μm-thick sensor, respectively (i.e., zones identified by the doted lines in the visible images).
5 Peppers image. (a) Original object (b) Conventional solution with minimum-error threshold (Lloyd-Max): SNR = 13.72 dB (c) Binary acquisition using our method (d) Reconstruction using our method: SNR = 19.10 dB
6 Experimental results using the proposed method: some typical 3-D geometries of the human face mask in wireframe mode.
7 Photograph of two large-area 1780 lines/mm diffraction gratings (	      				  420		    		  mm		  ×		  450		    		  mm			      	    ) used at high incidence in a pulse compressor for the high-energy PETAL laser [79]. The diffraction gratings are made of dielectrics; see Section 6.1b.
8 Computer simulation of the light- intensity distribution of the interference pattern for hexagonal right-handed (RH) as well as left-handed (LH) photonic chiral structures using                                                                         6                           +                           1                                                                beam geometry. (a) 3D interference intensity distribution for RH structures. (c) Intensity profile in                                                                         x                           −                           z                                                                plane. (b) and (d) correspond to (a) and (c) for LH photonic chiral structures.
9 Example of 2D array of color-coded dots.
10 Phase distribution of the diffraction pattern observed at                                                                         z                           ∕                           L                           =                           2.0                                                               , caused by a finite-radius SPP with fractional topological charge                                                                         α                           =                           2.5                                                               . We can see the chain of unit strength vortices on the                                                                         +                           x                                                                axis.
11 (a)–(d) x–z cross sections of the beam intensity are shown as a function of focal depth, zf, for a focused Gaussian beam propagating through in silico fractal medium 2. For each panel, the result for a single simulation is displayed on top, with the corresponding averaged result over N=100 randomly generated fractal media displayed on the bottom. For visualization, all images are self-normalized to a maximum value of 1.
12 Isointensity plot of an oblique spatiotemporal Bessel–Airy wave packet.