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1 Ghost imaging: coincidence measurements of two beams of entangled photons—one of which interacts with an object and one of which doesn’t—can be used to reconstruct a “ghost” image of the object.
2 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
3 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.
4 THz near-field images in the frequency domain. (a) and (b) Amplitude frequency maps at 300 GHz normalized to reference maps using 10- and 1-μm-thick 	    	      		X	      	    	  -cut LN crystals, respectively (visible image of the sample on the right hand side). (c)–(e) Expanded view for the conditions without probe filtering, with probe filtering using the 10-μm-thick sensor, and with probe filtering using the 1-μm-thick sensor, respectively (i.e., zones identified by the doted lines in the visible images).
5 Numerical simulations of amplification of white noise by FWM and SRS as a function of propagation length.
6 (a)–(d) x–z cross sections of the beam intensity are shown as a function of focal depth, zf, for a focused Gaussian beam propagating through in silico fractal medium 2. For each panel, the result for a single simulation is displayed on top, with the corresponding averaged result over N=100 randomly generated fractal media displayed on the bottom. For visualization, all images are self-normalized to a maximum value of 1.
7 A helical phase profile                                                          exp                              		                                     (                                 i                                 ℓ                                 ϕ                                 )                                                                                  converts a Gaussian laser beam into a helical mode whose wave fronts resemble an ℓ-fold corkscrew. In this case                                                          ℓ                              =                              3                                                   .
8 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
9 Liquid-crystal SLMs allow unprecedented control in the generation and detection of structured light fields. (a) Long exposure image of laser light diffracted from the pixelated device. (b) CCD camera image showing the various diffraction orders. Efficiencies are typically in the 60%–85% range.
10 Schematic setup of the thin disk laser resonator and the pump module.
11 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
12 Isointensity plot of an oblique spatiotemporal Bessel–Airy wave packet.