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1 A helical phase profile                                                          exp                              		                                     (                                 i                                 ℓ                                 ϕ                                 )                                                                                  converts a Gaussian laser beam into a helical mode whose wave fronts resemble an ℓ-fold corkscrew. In this case                                                          ℓ                              =                              3                                                   .
2 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
3 Profile of a stable 	      				  l		  =		  +		  1			      	     vortex soliton with 	      				  b		  =		  4.4			      	    , 	      				  		    p		    i		  		  =		  0.55			      	    . Isosurface depicting the field modulus						distribution (left) at 	      				  |		  q		  |		  =		  0.07			      	    .
4 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
5 Photograph of two large-area 1780 lines/mm diffraction gratings (	      				  420		    		  mm		  ×		  450		    		  mm			      	    ) used at high incidence in a pulse compressor for the high-energy PETAL laser [79]. The diffraction gratings are made of dielectrics; see Section 6.1b.
6 THz near-field images in the frequency domain. (a) and (b) Amplitude frequency maps at 300 GHz normalized to reference maps using 10- and 1-μm-thick 	    	      		X	      	    	  -cut LN crystals, respectively (visible image of the sample on the right hand side). (c)–(e) Expanded view for the conditions without probe filtering, with probe filtering using the 10-μm-thick sensor, and with probe filtering using the 1-μm-thick sensor, respectively (i.e., zones identified by the doted lines in the visible images).
7 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
8
9 GPU simulation results with the same parameters as in Fig. 4 of [9]. Thickness of the medium is 1 cm, refractive index n=1.33, wavelength of light is 633 nm. Radius, refractive index, and scattering coefficient of the spherical scatterer in the simulations in (a) and (b) are rs=0.1  μm, ns=1.59, μs=10  cm−1, and in the sphere–cylinder mixed simulations in (c) and (d), μs=5  cm−1. For the cylindrical scatterer in the simulations in (c) and (d), rc=0.75  μm, nc=1.56, μc(90°)=65  cm−1. The direction of the cylinders is along the y axis, and the standard deviation for the Gauss distribution of the direction is 5°. The birefringence value in the simulations in (b) and (d) is 1×10−5, corresponding to an extension of 5 mm. The birefringence axis is along the 45° direction on the x–y plane. The cutoff numbers of scattering steps are all set to 200. The number of simulated photons is 1.2×108 for each group. The detector area is 1  cm×1  cm, partitioned into 100×100 pixels.
10 Experimental results of the signal and reference speckled beams with triangular aperture and cross-correlations between them in the first, second, and third columns, respectively.
11 Isointensity plot of an oblique spatiotemporal Bessel–Airy wave packet.
12 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
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