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1 Photograph of two large-area 1780 lines/mm diffraction gratings (	      				  420		    		  mm		  ×		  450		    		  mm			      	    ) used at high incidence in a pulse compressor for the high-energy PETAL laser [79]. The diffraction gratings are made of dielectrics; see Section 6.1b.
2 (a) Schematic of chalcogenide–silica all-solid bandgap fiber. Red: chalcogenide strands. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of endface of a chalcogenide–silica bandgap fiber (core diameter                                                                         7.6                                                       μm                                                               , pitch                                                                         3.8                                                       μm                                                               , hole diameter                                                                         1.45                                                       μm                                                               ) polished by focused-ion-beam milling.
3 Effect of EOT on spatial information. The central figure shows the input probe beam generated with the DLP before the FWM. The top row shows the entangled images generated by the FWM process before the plasmonic structures, while the lower row shows the entangled images after transduction through the plasmonic structures.
4 Fundamental mode transverse electric field intensity (Et2) distributions at 1.45 μm (upper figures) and 1.75 μm (lower figures) wavelengths, for nearly zero-dispersion flattened PCFs with Λ=2.3  μm and d=0.61  μm for (a) α=0° and β=0°, (b) α=30° and β=0°, (c) α=0° and β=30°, (d) α=0° and β=0°, (e) α=30° and β=0°, and (f) α=0° and β=30°.
5 Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.
6 Numerical simulations of amplification of white noise by FWM and SRS as a function of propagation length.
7 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
8 Comparison of x-ray images of (a) cartilage on a chicken’s bone and (e) a tomato. The cartilage is shown clearly in (c) the differential phase image compared to (b) the absorption and (d) the scattering images. The inner structure of the tomato can be seen in (h) the scattering image, whereas (f) the absorption and (g) the differential phase images do not show any profiles.
9 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.
10 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
11 Normalized intensity (top) and phase (bottom) profiles of some superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian modes:                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      01                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  ,                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      0                                    −                                    5                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  , and                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      10                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                   (left to right).
12 Transfer of angular momentum in optical tweezers. A trapped object can be rotated either by the transfer of SAM from a circularly polarized beam (left) or by the transfer of OAM from a high-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam.