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1 Numerical simulations of amplification of white noise by FWM and SRS as a function of propagation length.
2 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
3 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
4 20 × 24 pixel scan of a life-size mannequin at 324 m distance. fSample                         = 2 GHz, 7 × 106 pulses s−1, 16 ps histogram binning size, pattern length b = 16384 bits, 2 s per-pixel dwell time. Measurement acquired using a shallow-junction SPAD. (a) Close-up photograph of the scene. (b) Segmented surface plot of the scan, including several pixels locking onto background objects.
5 Normalized intensity (top) and phase (bottom) profiles of some superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian modes:                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      01                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  ,                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      0                                    −                                    5                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  , and                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      10                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                   (left to right).
6 Examples of buccal squamous epithelial cells found on prepared specimen slides. (a) Representative transmission image of two overlapping cells and (d) the corresponding spatially resolved map Σ(x, y) calculated by PWS. (b) Example of a folded isolated cell and (e) the corresponding map of Σ. (c) Isolated, non-folded cell classified as “suitable” for our study and (f) the corresponding Σ(x, y).
7 Phase distribution of the diffraction pattern observed at                                                                         z                           ∕                           L                           =                           2.0                                                               , caused by a finite-radius SPP with fractional topological charge                                                                         α                           =                           2.5                                                               . We can see the chain of unit strength vortices on the                                                                         +                           x                                                                axis.
8 Peppers image. (a) Original object (b) Conventional solution with minimum-error threshold (Lloyd-Max): SNR = 13.72 dB (c) Binary acquisition using our method (d) Reconstruction using our method: SNR = 19.10 dB
9 Profile of a stable 	      				  l		  =		  +		  1			      	     vortex soliton with 	      				  b		  =		  4.4			      	    , 	      				  		    p		    i		  		  =		  0.55			      	    . Isosurface depicting the field modulus						distribution (left) at 	      				  |		  q		  |		  =		  0.07			      	    .
10 Comparison of x-ray images of (a) cartilage on a chicken’s bone and (e) a tomato. The cartilage is shown clearly in (c) the differential phase image compared to (b) the absorption and (d) the scattering images. The inner structure of the tomato can be seen in (h) the scattering image, whereas (f) the absorption and (g) the differential phase images do not show any profiles.
11 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
12 Liquid-crystal SLMs allow unprecedented control in the generation and detection of structured light fields. (a) Long exposure image of laser light diffracted from the pixelated device. (b) CCD camera image showing the various diffraction orders. Efficiencies are typically in the 60%–85% range.