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1 Normalized net round-trip gain                                                                                                       G                                                               s                                 p                                                                                                                         as a function of pump-signal and idler-signal phase mismatches                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               p                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                                and                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               i                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                               , respectively, for                                                                         N                           =                                                                                                                              (                                                                           π                                       /                                       2                                                                        )                                                                                             2                                                                                          . GVD is neglected, so the AM and PM eigenmodes are decoupled. (a) Gain for AM eigenmodes, (b) gain for PM eigenmodes.
2 Profile of a stable 	      				  l		  =		  +		  1			      	     vortex soliton with 	      				  b		  =		  4.4			      	    , 	      				  		    p		    i		  		  =		  0.55			      	    . Isosurface depicting the field modulus						distribution (left) at 	      				  |		  q		  |		  =		  0.07			      	    .
3 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
4 (a) Schematic of a four-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (b) and (c) Electric field density profile of the first- and second-order modes, respectively. (d) Electric field density profile of the third-order mode of the ten-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (e) Mode diagram as a function of taper segment number.
5 Isointensity plot of an oblique spatiotemporal Bessel–Airy wave packet.
6 (a)–(d) x–z cross sections of the beam intensity are shown as a function of focal depth, zf, for a focused Gaussian beam propagating through in silico fractal medium 2. For each panel, the result for a single simulation is displayed on top, with the corresponding averaged result over N=100 randomly generated fractal media displayed on the bottom. For visualization, all images are self-normalized to a maximum value of 1.
7 A helical phase profile                                                          exp                              		                                     (                                 i                                 ℓ                                 ϕ                                 )                                                                                  converts a Gaussian laser beam into a helical mode whose wave fronts resemble an ℓ-fold corkscrew. In this case                                                          ℓ                              =                              3                                                   .
8 Experimental results of the signal and reference speckled beams with triangular aperture and cross-correlations between them in the first, second, and third columns, respectively.
9 Experimental results using the proposed method: some typical 3-D geometries of the human face mask in wireframe mode.
10 Fundamental mode transverse electric field intensity (Et2) distributions at 1.45 μm (upper figures) and 1.75 μm (lower figures) wavelengths, for nearly zero-dispersion flattened PCFs with Λ=2.3  μm and d=0.61  μm for (a) α=0° and β=0°, (b) α=30° and β=0°, (c) α=0° and β=30°, (d) α=0° and β=0°, (e) α=30° and β=0°, and (f) α=0° and β=30°.
11 Co-registered image of the change in blood flow image (Fig. 3A) with the projection view image of the blood vessel network obtained by the OMAG method after the injury (Fig. 4B). The color map is the same as in Fig. 3A. The grayscale of the OMAG image was inverted such that the blood vessels appear dark for better contrast.
12 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.