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1 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
2                      Transfer of angular momentum in optical tweezers. A trapped object can be rotated either by the transfer of SAM from a circularly polarized beam (left) or by the transfer of OAM from a high-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam.
3 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.
4 Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.
5                      Example of color stripe indexing based on De Bruijn sequence                                                                                           (                                 k                                 =                                 5                                 ,                                 n                                 =                                 3                                 )                                                                                  [35].
6 20 × 24 pixel scan of a life-size mannequin at 324 m distance. fSample                         = 2 GHz, 7 × 106 pulses s−1, 16 ps histogram binning size, pattern length b = 16384 bits, 2 s per-pixel dwell time. Measurement acquired using a shallow-junction SPAD. (a) Close-up photograph of the scene. (b) Segmented surface plot of the scan, including several pixels locking onto background objects.
7 Normalized linear Stokes vector components demonstrate polarization synthesis.
8 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
9 Normalized net round-trip gain                                                                                                       G                                                               s                                 p                                                                                                                         as a function of pump-signal and idler-signal phase mismatches                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               p                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                                and                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               i                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                               , respectively, for                                                                         N                           =                                                                                                                              (                                                                           π                                       /                                       2                                                                        )                                                                                             2                                                                                          . GVD is neglected, so the AM and PM eigenmodes are decoupled. (a) Gain for AM eigenmodes, (b) gain for PM eigenmodes.
10 Second harmonic generation methods for studying chirality were developed in organic molecules before being applied to metamaterials. In (a), illustration of SHG from supramolecularly ordered chiral helicenes molecules. In (b), illustration of SHG from G-shaped nanostructures, arranged in a chiral unit cell. The incoming light is at 800 nm (near red color) and the detected signal is at 400 nm (near blue color).
11 Peppers image. (a) Original object (b) Conventional solution with minimum-error threshold (Lloyd-Max): SNR = 13.72 dB (c) Binary acquisition using our method (d) Reconstruction using our method: SNR = 19.10 dB
12 Phase distribution of the diffraction pattern observed at                                                                         z                           ∕                           L                           =                           2.0                                                               , caused by a finite-radius SPP with fractional topological charge                                                                         α                           =                           2.5                                                               . We can see the chain of unit strength vortices on the                                                                         +                           x                                                                axis.
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