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1 Comparison of x-ray images of (a) cartilage on a chicken’s bone and (e) a tomato. The cartilage is shown clearly in (c) the differential phase image compared to (b) the absorption and (d) the scattering images. The inner structure of the tomato can be seen in (h) the scattering image, whereas (f) the absorption and (g) the differential phase images do not show any profiles.
2 Example of 2D array of color-coded dots.
3 (a) Schematic of a four-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (b) and (c) Electric field density profile of the first- and second-order modes, respectively. (d) Electric field density profile of the third-order mode of the ten-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (e) Mode diagram as a function of taper segment number.
4 Numerical simulations of amplification of white noise by FWM and SRS as a function of propagation length.
5 Peppers image. (a) Original object (b) Conventional solution with minimum-error threshold (Lloyd-Max): SNR = 13.72 dB (c) Binary acquisition using our method (d) Reconstruction using our method: SNR = 19.10 dB
6 Plasmon energy ω in electron volts of a composite gold NT and gold core system, for q=0 and m=2, using ωp=1.37×1016  Hz, plotted versus δ and d, when a1=7  nm.
7 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
8 Ghost imaging: coincidence measurements of two beams of entangled photons—one of which interacts with an object and one of which doesn’t—can be used to reconstruct a “ghost” image of the object.
9 Second harmonic generation methods for studying chirality were developed in organic molecules before being applied to metamaterials. In (a), illustration of SHG from supramolecularly ordered chiral helicenes molecules. In (b), illustration of SHG from G-shaped nanostructures, arranged in a chiral unit cell. The incoming light is at 800 nm (near red color) and the detected signal is at 400 nm (near blue color).
10 Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.
11 Normalized intensity (top) and phase (bottom) profiles of some superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian modes:                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      01                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  ,                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      0                                    −                                    5                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  , and                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      10                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                   (left to right).
12 20 × 24 pixel scan of a life-size mannequin at 324 m distance. fSample                         = 2 GHz, 7 × 106 pulses s−1, 16 ps histogram binning size, pattern length b = 16384 bits, 2 s per-pixel dwell time. Measurement acquired using a shallow-junction SPAD. (a) Close-up photograph of the scene. (b) Segmented surface plot of the scan, including several pixels locking onto background objects.