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1 Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.
2 Transfer of angular momentum in optical tweezers. A trapped object can be rotated either by the transfer of SAM from a circularly polarized beam (left) or by the transfer of OAM from a high-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam.
3 Example of color stripe indexing based on De Bruijn sequence                                                                                           (                                 k                                 =                                 5                                 ,                                 n                                 =                                 3                                 )                                                                                  [35].
4 Supplementary epifluorescence collection through a ring of optical fibers. (a) Top: CAD-drawing of a custom fiber-ring holder placed under an objective. Bottom: Closeup view showing the ring-like arrangement of the fiber tips. Only five of eight fibers are shown. Fluorophores are 2-photon excited in the focus of an infrared laser beam (red), causing isotropic fluorescence emission (green). (b) Left: Top view of the ring-like arrangement of eight 1-mm diameter fibers. Right: Dual-channel detection in a custom 2PLSM setup. Optical fibers were bundled and placed in front of a second PMT.
5 Experimental results using the proposed method: some typical 3-D geometries of the human face mask in wireframe mode.
6 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.
7 Schematic setup of the thin disk laser resonator and the pump module.
8 Photograph of two large-area 1780 lines/mm diffraction gratings (	      				  420		    		  mm		  ×		  450		    		  mm			      	    ) used at high incidence in a pulse compressor for the high-energy PETAL laser [79]. The diffraction gratings are made of dielectrics; see Section 6.1b.
9 Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.
10 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
11
12 GPU simulation results with the same parameters as in Fig. 4 of [9]. Thickness of the medium is 1 cm, refractive index n=1.33, wavelength of light is 633 nm. Radius, refractive index, and scattering coefficient of the spherical scatterer in the simulations in (a) and (b) are rs=0.1  μm, ns=1.59, μs=10  cm−1, and in the sphere–cylinder mixed simulations in (c) and (d), μs=5  cm−1. For the cylindrical scatterer in the simulations in (c) and (d), rc=0.75  μm, nc=1.56, μc(90°)=65  cm−1. The direction of the cylinders is along the y axis, and the standard deviation for the Gauss distribution of the direction is 5°. The birefringence value in the simulations in (b) and (d) is 1×10−5, corresponding to an extension of 5 mm. The birefringence axis is along the 45° direction on the x–y plane. The cutoff numbers of scattering steps are all set to 200. The number of simulated photons is 1.2×108 for each group. The detector area is 1  cm×1  cm, partitioned into 100×100 pixels.
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