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1 Co-registered image of the change in blood flow image (Fig. 3A) with the projection view image of the blood vessel network obtained by the OMAG method after the injury (Fig. 4B). The color map is the same as in Fig. 3A. The grayscale of the OMAG image was inverted such that the blood vessels appear dark for better contrast.
2 (a)–(d) x–z cross sections of the beam intensity are shown as a function of focal depth, zf, for a focused Gaussian beam propagating through in silico fractal medium 2. For each panel, the result for a single simulation is displayed on top, with the corresponding averaged result over N=100 randomly generated fractal media displayed on the bottom. For visualization, all images are self-normalized to a maximum value of 1.
3 Experimental results of the signal and reference speckled beams with triangular aperture and cross-correlations between them in the first, second, and third columns, respectively.
4 Normalized intensity (top) and phase (bottom) profiles of some superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian modes:                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      01                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  ,                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      0                                    −                                    5                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  , and                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      10                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                   (left to right).
5 Supplementary epifluorescence collection through a ring of optical fibers. (a) Top: CAD-drawing of a custom fiber-ring holder placed under an objective. Bottom: Closeup view showing the ring-like arrangement of the fiber tips. Only five of eight fibers are shown. Fluorophores are 2-photon excited in the focus of an infrared laser beam (red), causing isotropic fluorescence emission (green). (b) Left: Top view of the ring-like arrangement of eight 1-mm diameter fibers. Right: Dual-channel detection in a custom 2PLSM setup. Optical fibers were bundled and placed in front of a second PMT.
6 Transfer of angular momentum in optical tweezers. A trapped object can be rotated either by the transfer of SAM from a circularly polarized beam (left) or by the transfer of OAM from a high-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam.
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8 Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.
9 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
10 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
11 Peppers image. (a) Original object (b) Conventional solution with minimum-error threshold (Lloyd-Max): SNR = 13.72 dB (c) Binary acquisition using our method (d) Reconstruction using our method: SNR = 19.10 dB
12 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
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