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2 (a) Schematic of chalcogenide–silica all-solid bandgap fiber. Red: chalcogenide strands. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of endface of a chalcogenide–silica bandgap fiber (core diameter                                                                         7.6                                                       μm                                                               , pitch                                                                         3.8                                                       μm                                                               , hole diameter                                                                         1.45                                                       μm                                                               ) polished by focused-ion-beam milling.
3 The orthorectified aerial image and 5m DEM of Chiu-Shui River.
4 Computer simulation of the light- intensity distribution of the interference pattern for hexagonal right-handed (RH) as well as left-handed (LH) photonic chiral structures using                                                                         6                           +                           1                                                                beam geometry. (a) 3D interference intensity distribution for RH structures. (c) Intensity profile in                                                                         x                           −                           z                                                                plane. (b) and (d) correspond to (a) and (c) for LH photonic chiral structures.
5 Fundamental mode transverse electric field intensity (Et2) distributions at 1.45 μm (upper figures) and 1.75 μm (lower figures) wavelengths, for nearly zero-dispersion flattened PCFs with Λ=2.3  μm and d=0.61  μm for (a) α=0° and β=0°, (b) α=30° and β=0°, (c) α=0° and β=30°, (d) α=0° and β=0°, (e) α=30° and β=0°, and (f) α=0° and β=30°.
6 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
7 Normalized net round-trip gain                                                                                                       G                                                               s                                 p                                                                                                                         as a function of pump-signal and idler-signal phase mismatches                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               p                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                                and                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               i                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                               , respectively, for                                                                         N                           =                                                                                                                              (                                                                           π                                       /                                       2                                                                        )                                                                                             2                                                                                          . GVD is neglected, so the AM and PM eigenmodes are decoupled. (a) Gain for AM eigenmodes, (b) gain for PM eigenmodes.
8 Schematic setup of the thin disk laser resonator and the pump module.
9 GPU simulation results with the same parameters as in Fig. 4 of [9]. Thickness of the medium is 1 cm, refractive index n=1.33, wavelength of light is 633 nm. Radius, refractive index, and scattering coefficient of the spherical scatterer in the simulations in (a) and (b) are rs=0.1  μm, ns=1.59, μs=10  cm−1, and in the sphere–cylinder mixed simulations in (c) and (d), μs=5  cm−1. For the cylindrical scatterer in the simulations in (c) and (d), rc=0.75  μm, nc=1.56, μc(90°)=65  cm−1. The direction of the cylinders is along the y axis, and the standard deviation for the Gauss distribution of the direction is 5°. The birefringence value in the simulations in (b) and (d) is 1×10−5, corresponding to an extension of 5 mm. The birefringence axis is along the 45° direction on the x–y plane. The cutoff numbers of scattering steps are all set to 200. The number of simulated photons is 1.2×108 for each group. The detector area is 1  cm×1  cm, partitioned into 100×100 pixels.
10 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
11 Plasmon energy ω in electron volts of a composite gold NT and gold core system, for q=0 and m=2, using ωp=1.37×1016  Hz, plotted versus δ and d, when a1=7  nm.
12 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
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