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1 GPU simulation results with the same parameters as in Fig. 4 of [9]. Thickness of the medium is 1 cm, refractive index n=1.33, wavelength of light is 633 nm. Radius, refractive index, and scattering coefficient of the spherical scatterer in the simulations in (a) and (b) are rs=0.1  μm, ns=1.59, μs=10  cm−1, and in the sphere–cylinder mixed simulations in (c) and (d), μs=5  cm−1. For the cylindrical scatterer in the simulations in (c) and (d), rc=0.75  μm, nc=1.56, μc(90°)=65  cm−1. The direction of the cylinders is along the y axis, and the standard deviation for the Gauss distribution of the direction is 5°. The birefringence value in the simulations in (b) and (d) is 1×10−5, corresponding to an extension of 5 mm. The birefringence axis is along the 45° direction on the x–y plane. The cutoff numbers of scattering steps are all set to 200. The number of simulated photons is 1.2×108 for each group. The detector area is 1  cm×1  cm, partitioned into 100×100 pixels.
2 Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.
3 Experimental results of the signal and reference speckled beams with triangular aperture and cross-correlations between them in the first, second, and third columns, respectively.
4 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
5 Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.
6 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
7 Plasmon energy ω in electron volts of a composite gold NT and gold core system, for q=0 and m=2, using ωp=1.37×1016  Hz, plotted versus δ and d, when a1=7  nm.
8 Ghost imaging: coincidence measurements of two beams of entangled photons—one of which interacts with an object and one of which doesn’t—can be used to reconstruct a “ghost” image of the object.
9 Transfer of angular momentum in optical tweezers. A trapped object can be rotated either by the transfer of SAM from a circularly polarized beam (left) or by the transfer of OAM from a high-order Laguerre–Gaussian beam.
10 Schematic setup of the thin disk laser resonator and the pump module.
11 Supplementary epifluorescence collection through a ring of optical fibers. (a) Top: CAD-drawing of a custom fiber-ring holder placed under an objective. Bottom: Closeup view showing the ring-like arrangement of the fiber tips. Only five of eight fibers are shown. Fluorophores are 2-photon excited in the focus of an infrared laser beam (red), causing isotropic fluorescence emission (green). (b) Left: Top view of the ring-like arrangement of eight 1-mm diameter fibers. Right: Dual-channel detection in a custom 2PLSM setup. Optical fibers were bundled and placed in front of a second PMT.
12 Effect of EOT on spatial information. The central figure shows the input probe beam generated with the DLP before the FWM. The top row shows the entangled images generated by the FWM process before the plasmonic structures, while the lower row shows the entangled images after transduction through the plasmonic structures.
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