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1 Supplementary epifluorescence collection through a ring of optical fibers. (a) Top: CAD-drawing of a custom fiber-ring holder placed under an objective. Bottom: Closeup view showing the ring-like arrangement of the fiber tips. Only five of eight fibers are shown. Fluorophores are 2-photon excited in the focus of an infrared laser beam (red), causing isotropic fluorescence emission (green). (b) Left: Top view of the ring-like arrangement of eight 1-mm diameter fibers. Right: Dual-channel detection in a custom 2PLSM setup. Optical fibers were bundled and placed in front of a second PMT.
3 Schematic diagram of single-prism pulse compressor.
4 THz near-field images in the frequency domain. (a) and (b) Amplitude frequency maps at 300 GHz normalized to reference maps using 10- and 1-μm-thick 	    	      		X	      	    	  -cut LN crystals, respectively (visible image of the sample on the right hand side). (c)–(e) Expanded view for the conditions without probe filtering, with probe filtering using the 10-μm-thick sensor, and with probe filtering using the 1-μm-thick sensor, respectively (i.e., zones identified by the doted lines in the visible images).
5 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
6 Examples of buccal squamous epithelial cells found on prepared specimen slides. (a) Representative transmission image of two overlapping cells and (d) the corresponding spatially resolved map Σ(x, y) calculated by PWS. (b) Example of a folded isolated cell and (e) the corresponding map of Σ. (c) Isolated, non-folded cell classified as “suitable” for our study and (f) the corresponding Σ(x, y).
7 (a) Schematic of chalcogenide–silica all-solid bandgap fiber. Red: chalcogenide strands. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of endface of a chalcogenide–silica bandgap fiber (core diameter                                                                         7.6                                                       μm                                                               , pitch                                                                         3.8                                                       μm                                                               , hole diameter                                                                         1.45                                                       μm                                                               ) polished by focused-ion-beam milling.
8 Comparison of x-ray images of (a) cartilage on a chicken’s bone and (e) a tomato. The cartilage is shown clearly in (c) the differential phase image compared to (b) the absorption and (d) the scattering images. The inner structure of the tomato can be seen in (h) the scattering image, whereas (f) the absorption and (g) the differential phase images do not show any profiles.
9 Ghost imaging: coincidence measurements of two beams of entangled photons—one of which interacts with an object and one of which doesn’t—can be used to reconstruct a “ghost” image of the object.
10 Profile of a stable 	      				  l		  =		  +		  1			      	     vortex soliton with 	      				  b		  =		  4.4			      	    , 	      				  		    p		    i		  		  =		  0.55			      	    . Isosurface depicting the field modulus						distribution (left) at 	      				  |		  q		  |		  =		  0.07			      	    .
11 Decomposition of natural images into Fourier components. (a) All images can be expressed as a sum of 2D Fourier basis functions [e.g., (b)] by taking the sum over all values in (c) the basis-scaled image.
12 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.