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1 Second harmonic generation methods for studying chirality were developed in organic molecules before being applied to metamaterials. In (a), illustration of SHG from supramolecularly ordered chiral helicenes molecules. In (b), illustration of SHG from G-shaped nanostructures, arranged in a chiral unit cell. The incoming light is at 800 nm (near red color) and the detected signal is at 400 nm (near blue color).
2 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
3 Experimental results using the proposed method: some typical 3-D geometries of the human face mask in wireframe mode.
4 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
5 20 × 24 pixel scan of a life-size mannequin at 324 m distance. fSample                         = 2 GHz, 7 × 106 pulses s−1, 16 ps histogram binning size, pattern length b = 16384 bits, 2 s per-pixel dwell time. Measurement acquired using a shallow-junction SPAD. (a) Close-up photograph of the scene. (b) Segmented surface plot of the scan, including several pixels locking onto background objects.
6 Fundamental mode transverse electric field intensity (Et2) distributions at 1.45 μm (upper figures) and 1.75 μm (lower figures) wavelengths, for nearly zero-dispersion flattened PCFs with Λ=2.3  μm and d=0.61  μm for (a) α=0° and β=0°, (b) α=30° and β=0°, (c) α=0° and β=30°, (d) α=0° and β=0°, (e) α=30° and β=0°, and (f) α=0° and β=30°.
7 (a) Schematic of a four-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (b) and (c) Electric field density profile of the first- and second-order modes, respectively. (d) Electric field density profile of the third-order mode of the ten-taper-segment micropillar cavity. (e) Mode diagram as a function of taper segment number.
8 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
9 Isointensity plot of an oblique spatiotemporal Bessel–Airy wave packet.
10 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
11 Example of color stripe indexing based on De Bruijn sequence                                                                                           (                                 k                                 =                                 5                                 ,                                 n                                 =                                 3                                 )                                                                                  [35].
12 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).