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1 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
2
3 Sketch of a microroll that can be fabricated  by rolling up strained layers. The tube wall represents a three- dimensional metamaterial consisting of a metal–semiconductor  superlattice containing quantum wells and metal gratings.
4 Phase distribution of the diffraction pattern observed at                                                                         z                           ∕                           L                           =                           2.0                                                               , caused by a finite-radius SPP with fractional topological charge                                                                         α                           =                           2.5                                                               . We can see the chain of unit strength vortices on the                                                                         +                           x                                                                axis.
5 Source images used in the experiment. Upper, L-R: cosine, cosine2, curls. Lower, L-R: eye, nose, palm. Each image was presented at a size of two degrees of visual angle square.
6 Example of 2D array of color-coded dots.
7 WFDI-based phase profile of a cardiomyocyte during a single beating cycle, 40 × . White horizontal scale bar represents 10 µm. Vertical color bar is in radians. Dynamics, 120 fps for 1 sec: Media 3.
8 Schematic setup of the thin disk laser resonator and the pump module.
9 (a) Schematic of chalcogenide–silica all-solid bandgap fiber. Red: chalcogenide strands. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of endface of a chalcogenide–silica bandgap fiber (core diameter                                                                         7.6                                                       μm                                                               , pitch                                                                         3.8                                                       μm                                                               , hole diameter                                                                         1.45                                                       μm                                                               ) polished by focused-ion-beam milling.
10 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
11 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
12 Normalized intensity (top) and phase (bottom) profiles of some superpositions of Laguerre–Gaussian modes:                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      01                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  ,                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      0                                    −                                    5                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                  , and                                                          L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      10                                                                                             +                              L                                                                                                   G                                                                                                      05                                                                                                                   (left to right).
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