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1 Calculation result of prospective THz-wave intensity via BNA-DFG under the consideration of perfect phase matching and absorption effect.
2 20 × 24 pixel scan of a life-size mannequin at 324 m distance. fSample                         = 2 GHz, 7 × 106 pulses s−1, 16 ps histogram binning size, pattern length b = 16384 bits, 2 s per-pixel dwell time. Measurement acquired using a shallow-junction SPAD. (a) Close-up photograph of the scene. (b) Segmented surface plot of the scan, including several pixels locking onto background objects.
3 Examples of buccal squamous epithelial cells found on prepared specimen slides. (a) Representative transmission image of two overlapping cells and (d) the corresponding spatially resolved map Σ(x, y) calculated by PWS. (b) Example of a folded isolated cell and (e) the corresponding map of Σ. (c) Isolated, non-folded cell classified as “suitable” for our study and (f) the corresponding Σ(x, y).
4 Example of color stripe indexing based on De Bruijn sequence                                                                                           (                                 k                                 =                                 5                                 ,                                 n                                 =                                 3                                 )                                                                                  [35].
5 Normalized net round-trip gain                                                                                                       G                                                               s                                 p                                                                                                                         as a function of pump-signal and idler-signal phase mismatches                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               p                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                                and                                                                         δ                                                         ν                                                               i                                 s                                                                                    Ω                           L                                                               , respectively, for                                                                         N                           =                                                                                                                              (                                                                           π                                       /                                       2                                                                        )                                                                                             2                                                                                          . GVD is neglected, so the AM and PM eigenmodes are decoupled. (a) Gain for AM eigenmodes, (b) gain for PM eigenmodes.
6 Comparison of quantitative phase maps with fluorescent assays during an optoinjection experiment: a) phase map and b) propidium iodide fluorescence (optoinjection assay) 5 min after irradiation ; c) phase map and d) Calcein AM fluorescence (viability assay) after 90 min incubation. Two cells were successfully optoinjected - one proved viable (solid arrow) while the other (dashed arrow) was necrotic after 90 min. Note the significant decrease in the optical thickness of the non-viable cell. Scale bars 20 μm.
7 (a)–(d) Color fringe image acquired by a color CCD camera and its RGB components, (e) image results from the division operation applied to image in (b) and (d). The background is clipped to enhance the detail of the fringes, (f) binary image obtained from (d).
8 Compressed spiral-scanning measurement and reconstruction of physical 3D object with spiral scanning. (Top row) Subsampled complex-valued hologram data along the spiral path. The magnitude and phase values are represented by the saturation and hue, respectively, as shown in the color wheel of the legend. Undefined hologram pixels are displayed as the gray color. The corresponding numbers of spiral revolutions p, compression ratio M/N, and the reconstruction performance score (SSIM) are shown in Table 1. (Bottom row) The reconstructed image shows the proximal layer in red (z1=870  mm) and the distal layer in blue (z2=1070  mm). Empty space is depicted as white. (Inset) The zoomed-in view of the restored 3D object. Note the high quality of letter “S” down at the 25% compression ratio.
9 Plasmon energy ω in electron volts of a composite gold NT and gold core system, for q=0 and m=2, using ωp=1.37×1016  Hz, plotted versus δ and d, when a1=7  nm.
10 Transmission spectra through a lattice of  periodic gold film perforated with Z-shaped slits with slit widths                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           25                                                               , 50, 100,                                                                         150                                                       nm                                                               .                                                                         h                           =                           500                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                         l                           =                           800                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                       s                                                                                             2                                                                                    =                           450                                                       nm                                                               ,                                                                                                                                        w                                                                                             1                                                                                    =                                                                                          w                                                                                             3                                                                                    =                           150                                                       nm                                                               .
11 Ghost imaging: coincidence measurements of two beams of entangled photons—one of which interacts with an object and one of which doesn’t—can be used to reconstruct a “ghost” image of the object.
12 Experimental results of the signal and reference speckled beams with triangular aperture and cross-correlations between them in the first, second, and third columns, respectively.